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NA Mahendrapala's existence was conclusively established through a copper-plate charter discovered later.


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Vigrahapala I. Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji. Muhammad Shiran Khalji. Ghiyasuddin Iwaj Shah Khalji. Not from the Khalji tribe, appointed by his father Iltutmish. Alauddin Daulat Shah Khalji. Malik Ikhtiyaruddin Iuzbak. Ijjauddin Balban Iuzbaki. Nasiruddin Bughra Khan. First Muslim ruler to conquer Satgaon kingdom, expanding Lakhnauti. First Muslim ruler to conquer Sonargaon , Mymensingh and Srihatta.

Completed Kaikaus' Conquest of Satgaon. Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah.

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Appointed as governor by Sultan of Delhi Muhammad bin Tughluq , but later declared independence. Qadar Khan. Azam Khan. Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah. His severed head was sent to Akbar, while his limbs were gibbeted at Tandah, the Mughal capital in Bengal. Following his conquests of Gujarat and Bengal, Akbar was preoccupied with domestic concerns.

He did not leave Fatehpur Sikri on a military campaign until , when Punjab was again invaded by his brother, Mirza Muhammad Hakim.

The Reformation Was Global: Akbar, the Mughal Empire, and Divine Faith - Footnoting History

Akbar, however, spurred them on. The soldiers were provided with pay eight months in advance. He stayed there for three weeks, in the absence of his brother, who had fled into the mountains. He pardoned his brother, who took up de facto charge of the Mughal administration in Kabul; Bakht-un-Nis continued to be the official governor. A few years later, in , Muhammad Hakim died and Kabul passed into the hands of Akbar once again. It was officially incorporated as a province of the Mughal Empire. The Kabul expedition was the beginning of a long period of activity over the northern frontiers of the empire.

In , Akbar negotiated a pact with Abdullah Khan in which the Mughals agreed to remain neutral during the Uzbek invasion of Safavid held Khorasan. Thus freed, Akbar began a series of campaigns to pacify the Yusufzais and other rebels. Raja Birbal , a renowned minister in Akbar's court, was also given military command.

The expedition turned out to be a disaster, and on its retreat from the mountains, Birbal and his entourage were ambushed and killed by the Afghans at the Malandarai Pass in February Over the next six years, the Mughals contained the Yusufzai in the mountain valleys, and forced the submission of many chiefs in Swat and Bajaur.

History of India, Volume 4: From the Reign of Akbar the Great to the Fall of the Moghul Empire

Akbar's response demonstrated his ability to clamp firm military control over the Afghan tribes. Despite his pact with the Uzbeks, Akbar nurtured a secret hope of reconquering Central Asia from today's Afghanistan. There was only a transient occupation of the two provinces by the Mughals under his grandson, Shah Jahan , in the midth century.

The last of the rebellious Afghan tribes were subdued by The Afridi and Orakzai tribes, which had risen up under the Roshaniyyas, had been subjugated. While in Lahore dealing with the Uzbeks, Akbar had sought to subjugate the Indus valley to secure the frontier provinces. Ali Shah surrendered immediately to the Mughals, but another of his sons, Yaqub, crowned himself as king, and led a stubborn resistance to Mughal armies.

Finally, in June, , Akbar himself travelled from Lahore to Srinagar to receive the surrender of Yaqub and his rebel forces. Since , the northern fortress of Bhakkar had remained under imperial control. Now, in , the Mughal governor of Multan tried and failed to secure the capitulation of Mirza Jani Beg, the independent ruler of Thatta in southern Sindh.

Jani Beg mustered a large army to meet the Mughals.

Biography of Akbar the Great | India | Mughal Dynasty

After suffering further defeats, Jani Beg surrendered to the Mughals in , and in , paid homage to Akbar in Lahore. As early as , about half a dozen Baluchi chiefs, that were still under nominal Pani Afghan rule, had been persuaded to attend the imperial court and acknowledge the vassalage of Akbar.

In preparations to take Kandahar from the Safavids, Akbar ordered the Mughal forces to conquer the rest of the Afghan held parts of Baluchistan in As a result, the modern-day Pakistani and Afghan parts of Baluchistan, including the areas of the strategic region of Makran that lay within it, became a part of the Mughal Empire. Kandahar was the name given by Arab historians to the ancient Indian kingdom of Gandhara.

However, the Safavids considered it as an appanage of the Persian ruled territory of Khorasan and declared its association with the Mughal emperors to be a usurpation. In , while Akbar was consolidating his rule over northern India, the Safavid emperor, Tahmasp I , had seized Kandahar and expelled its Mughal governor.

For the next thirty years, it remained under Persian rule. Circumstances favoured the Mughals. In , Akbar received the exiled Safavid prince, Rostam Mirza, after he had quarrelled with his family.

The Mughal Expansion, 1526 - 1700

Mozaffar Hosayn, who was in any case in an adversary relationship with his overlord, Shah Abbas , was granted a rank of men, and his daughter Kandahari Begum was married to Akbar's grandson, the Mughal prince, Khurram. However, the power equation between the two had now changed in favour of the Mughals. In , Akbar began military operations against the Deccan Sultans who had not submitted to his authority.


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A subsequent revolt forced Akbar to take the fort in August He touched the western sea in Sind and at Surat and was well astride central India. Akbar's system of central government was based on the system that had evolved since the Delhi Sultanate , but the functions of various departments were carefully reorganised by laying down detailed regulations for their functioning [ citation needed ]. Akbar set about reforming the administration of his empire's land revenue by adopting a system that had been used by Sher Shah Suri.

A cultivated area where crops grew well was measured and taxed through fixed rates based on the area's crop and productivity. However, this placed hardship on the peasantry because tax rates were fixed on the basis of prices prevailing in the imperial court, which were often higher than those in the countryside.